The Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine has a rich history of research, scholarship and publication, encompassing the case reports and reviews in the early Digests, the more formally presented articles in the College of Osteopathy's first research journal, Osteopathic Medicine, and current publications in some of the medical and pharmacology fields' leading peer-reviewed journals.

The PCOM Scholarly Papers repository is an archive for pre-publication drafts or final versions of research and editorial articles, abstracts, posters, and unpublished work by faculty and scientists at PCOM's Philadelphia and Georgia campuses.


Submissions from 2018

School-Based Suicide Prevention: A Framework for Evidence-Based Practice, Jonathan B. Singer, Terri A. Erbacher PhD, and Perri Rosen


Acquired Resilience: An Evolved System of Tissue Protection in Mammals., Jonathan Stone, John Mitrofanis, Daniel M Johnstone, Benedetto Falsini, Silvia Bisti, Paul Adam, Arturo Bravo Nuevo, Mindy George-Weinstein, Rebecca Mason, and Janis Eells

Deletion of GLUT1 in Mouse Lens Epithelium Leads to Cataract Formation, Aditi Swarup, Brent A Bell, Jianhai Du, John Y S Han, Jamie Soto, E Dale Abel, Arturo Bravo Nuevo, Paul G FitzGerald, Neal S Peachey, and Nancy J Philp

The Roles of the COX2/PGE2/EP Axis in Therapeutic Resistance, Dali Tong, Qiuli Liu, Lin-Ang Wang, Qiubo Xie, Jian Pang, Yiqiang Huang, Luofu Wang, Gaolei Liu, Dianzheng Zhang, Weihua Lan, and Jun Jiang

Cost-Effectiveness and Budget Impact of Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor in the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis., Pratyusha Vadagam, Khalid M Kamal, Jordan R Covvey, Vincent Giannetti, and Kumar Mukherjee


The Oncogenic Roles of Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1 in Human Esophageal Carcinoma, Lu Wang, Weiwei Li, Kai Li, Yi Guo, Ditian Liu, Zhimeng Yao, Xianjie Lin, Shujun Li, Zuojie Jiang, Qing Liu, Yi Jiang, Beien Zhang, Lei Chen, Fuyou Zhou, Hongzheng Ren, Danxia Lin, Dianzheng Zhang, Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, and Hao Zhang


Listeriolysin O Causes ENaC Dysfunction in Human Airway Epithelial Cells., Guang Yang, Helena Pillich, Richard E. White, Istvan Czikora, Isabelle Pochic, Qiang Yue, Martina Hudel, Boris Gorshkov, Alexander Verin, Supriya Sridhar, Carlos M Isales, Douglas C Eaton, Jürg Hamacher, Trinad Chakraborty, and Rudolf Lucas

Submissions from 2017

Portomesenteric Vein Thrombosis After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy for Morbid Obesity., Leslie S Anewenah, Mohammed Asif, Richard Francesco, and Prashanth Ramachandra

Proof of Concept Studies of Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection as a Trigger for Late-onset Alzheimer Disease, Brian J. Balin PhD

Chlamydia Pneumoniae as an Etiologic Agent for Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease, Brian J. Balin PhD, Christine Hammond, Christopher S. Little, Susan Hingley, Denah Appelt, Judith A. Whittum-Hudson, Herve C. Gerard, and Alan P. Hudson

Osteopathic Approach to Treating a Patient with Congenital Infantile Torticollis Reveals Unusual Presentation of Absence of Concomitant Cranial Base Strain Pattern: A Case Report, Murray R. Berkowitz


Role of Myo/Nog Cells in Neuroprotection: Evidence from the Light Damaged Retina., Alice Brandli, Jacquelyn Gerhart, Christopher K Sutera, Sivaraman Purushothuman, Mindy George-Weinstein, Jonathan Stone, and Arturo Bravo Nuevo

Measuring Clinically Relevant Endpoints in a Serum-Free, Three-Dimensional, Primary Cell Culture System of Human Osteoarthritic Articular Chondrocytes, Grace Bundens, Andrea Buckley, LaBraya Milton, Kathryn Behling, Sarah E. Chmielewski, Ellen Cho, Xiomara Lozano-Torres, Abdulhafez Selim, Richard Lackman, Mindy George-Weinstein, Lawrence Miller, and Marina D'Angelo PhD


Time Course Expression Analysis of 1[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole Induction of Cytoprotection in Human Endothelial Cells., James A Bynum, Xinyu Wang, Salomon A Stavchansky, and Phillip D Bowman

A Regulatory Circuit HP1γ/miR-451a/c-Myc Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression, C Chang, J Liu, W He, M Qu, X Huang, Y Deng, L Shen, X Zhao, H Guo, J Jiang, X Y Fu, R Huang, Dianzheng Zhang, and J Yan


Oct4 Is Crucial for Transdifferentiation of Hepatocytes to Biliary Epithelial Cells in an in Vitro Organoid Culture Model, Mboya Doffou, George Adams, William C Bowen, Shirish Paranjpe, Harish S Parihar, Huy Nguyen, George K Michalopoulos, and Vishakha Bhave


A New Genus and Species of Marine Catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae) From the Upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, Wadi El-Hitan, Egypt, Sanaa E El-Sayed, Mahmoud A Kora, Hesham M Sallam, Kerin M. Claeson, Erik R Seiffert, and Mohammed S Antar


Simultaneous Iliacus and Psoas Muscle Variations, Philip A. Fabrizio, A E. Duncan, and B Proctor


Glenohumeral Joint Dissection: A New Protocol, Philip A. Fabrizio, Danielle Topping, and Kathleen Wolfe

The History of Home Cardiorespiratory Monitoring, Gary E. Freed and Francis Martinez


Development of Diagnostic SCAR Markers for Genomic DNA Amplifications in Breast Carcinoma by DNA Cloning of High-GC RAMP-PCR Fragments, Shangyi Fu, Jingliang Cheng, Chunli Wei, Luquan Yang, Xiuli Xiao, Dianzheng Zhang, M David Stewart, and Junjiang Fu

Antibody Conjugated, DNA-Based Nanocarriers Intercalated with Doxorubicin Eliminate Myofibroblasts in Explants of Human Lens Tissue, Jacquelyn Gerhart, Marvin Greenbaum, Lou Casta, Anthony Clemente, Keith Mathers, Robert Getts, and Mindy George-Weinstein

STEMI in a Young Female? Consider Spontaneous Peripartum Coronary Artery Dissection, Kenn Ghaffarian, Molly Furin, and Robert A. Bassett


Cyclosporine a Alters Expression of Renal Micrornas: New Insights into Calcineurin Inhibitor Nephrotoxicity, Jennifer L Gooch, Clayton King, Cynthia E Francis, Paul S Garcia, and Yun Bai

Cellular modeling of inflammation relevant to Alzheimer's disease: Molecular and cytokine analysis of host responses following chlamydial infection of human thp-1 monocytes, Christine Hammond, Jonathan M. Anzmann, Abhi P. Jain, Susan T. Hingley, and Brian J. Balin PhD


A New Species of the Neopterygian Fish Enchodus from the Duwi Formation, Campanian, Late Cretaceous, Western Desert, Central Egypt, W L. Holloway, Kerin M. Claeson, H M. Sallam, S El-Sayed, M Kora, J JW Sertich, and P M. O'Connor


Genetic Identification and Molecular Modeling Characterization Reveal a Novel PROM1 Mutation in Stargardt4-like Macular Dystrophy, Saber Imani, Jingliang Cheng, Marzieh D. Shasaltaneh, Chunli Wei, Lisha Yang, Shangyi Fu, Hui Zou, Md. Asaduzzaman Khan, Xianqin Zhang, Hanchun Chen, Dianzheng Zhang, Chengxia Duan, Hongbin Lv, Yumei Li, Rui Chen, and Junjiang Fu

Managing Chronic Kidney Disease With MTM, Samuel N. John, Candis McGraw-Senat, Drew Cates, Melissa Williams, and Hiral Gandhi

Treatment Options in Managing Acute Perioperative Pain, Samuel N. John, Melissa Williams, and Christina Hunley

Blended Learning Educational Format for Third-Year Pediatrics Clinical Rotation., Erik E. Langenau, Robert Lee, and Marci Z. Fults

All-Cause and Specific-Cause Mortality Risk After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Patients With and Without Diabetes., Michelle R. Lent, Peter N Benotti, Tooraj Mirshahi, Glenn S Gerhard, William E Strodel, Anthony T Petrick, Jon D Gabrielsen, David D Rolston, Christopher D Still, Annemarie G Hirsch, Fahad Zubair, Adam Cook, David J Carey, and G Craig Wood


Attitudes about Future Genetic Testing for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Addiction among Community-Based Veterans., Michelle R. Lent, Stuart N Hoffman, H Lester Kirchner, Thomas G Urosevich, Joseph J Boscarino, and Joseph A Boscarino

Attitudes of Physician Assistant Educators Toward Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Care, Laura A. Levy and Kathleen Mathieson


Metformin Reverses Prostate Cancer Resistance to Enzalutamide by Targeting TGF-β1/STAT3 Axis-Regulated EMT., Qiuli Liu, Dali Tong, Gaolei Liu, Jing Xu, Khang Do, Kyla Geary, Dianzheng Zhang, Jun Zhang, Yao Zhang, Yaoming Li, Gang Bi, Weihua Lan, and Jun Jiang


Carney Complex with PRKAR1A Gene Mutation: A Case Report and Literature Review, Qiuli Liu, Dali Tong, Gaolei Liu, Yuting Yi, Dianzheng Zhang, Jun Zhang, Yao Zhang, Zaoming Huang, Yaoming Li, Rongrong Chen, Yanfang Guan, Xin Yi, and Jun Jiang

HIF2A Germline-Mutation-Induced Polycythemia in a Patient with VHL-Associated Renal-Cell Carcinoma, Qiuli Liu, Dali Tong, Gaolei Liu, Yuting Yi, Dianzheng Zhang, Jun Zhang, Yao Zhang, Zaoming Huang, Yaoming Li, Rongrong Chen, Yanfang Guan, Xin Yi, and Jun Jiang


Different RET Gene Mutation-Induced Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A in 3 Chinese Families, Qiuli Liu, Dali Tong, Wenqiang Yuan, Gaolei Liu, Gang Yuan, Weihua Lan, Dianzheng Zhang, Jun Zhang, Zaoming Huang, Yao Zhang, and Jun Jiang

A Somatic HIF2α Mutation-Induced Multiple and Recurrent Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma with Polycythemia: Clinical Study with Literature Review., Qiuli Liu, Yan Wang, Dali Tong, Gaolei Liu, Wenqiang Yuan, Jun Zhang, Jin Ye, Yao Zhang, Gang Yuan, Qingxing Feng, Dianzheng Zhang, and Jun Jiang


A Synoptic Review of the Eocene (Ypresian) Cartilaginous Fishes (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali, Elasmobranchii) of the Bolca Konservat-Lagerstätte, Italy, Giuseppe Marramà, Giorgio Carnevale, Andrea Engelbrecht, Kerin M. Claeson, Roberto Zorzin, Mariagabriella Fornasiero, and Jürgen Kriwet


Revision of Eocene Electric Rays (Torpediniformes, Batomorphii) from the Bolca Konservat-Lagerstätte, Italy, Reveals the First Fossil Embryo in Situ in Marine Batoids and Provides New Insights into the Origin of Trophic Novelties in Coral Reef Fishes, Giuseppe Marramà, Kerin M. Claeson, Giorgio Carnevale, and Jürgen Kriwet

The Effect of a Supervised Community-Based Exercise Program on Balance, Balance Confidence, and Gait in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation, Carol A. Miller, Jennifer E Williams, Katey L Durham, Selena C Hom, and Julie L Smith

Direct and Indirect Effects of Guggulsterone on the Induction of Beiging in Mature 3T3-L1 Adipocytes, C. N. Miller, Y. Azhar, A. Parmar, J. Samuels, Rangaiah Shashidharamurthy, and Srujana Rayalam

The Role of Micronutrients in the Response to Ambient Air Pollutants: Potential Mechanisms and Suggestions for Research Design, Colette N Miller and Srujana Rayalam

Sociodemographic Determinants of Out-of-Pocket Expenditures for Patients Using Prescription Drugs for Rheumatoid Arthritis, Kumar Mukherjee and Khalid M. Kamal

Huntington Disease, Carrie Nold


Trends in Hospital Admissions Due to Antidepressant-Related Adverse Drug Events from 2001 to 2011 in the U.S., Harish S. Parihar, Hongjun Yin, Jennifer L Gooch, Shari N. Allen, Samuel N. John, and Jianwei Xuan

Comparing and Contrasting the Use of Problem-Based Learning in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Programs., Dale Peeples, Anthony Guerrero, Bettina Bernstein, Jeffrey Hunt, Say How Ong, Cynthia Santos, Sandra Sexson, and Norbert Skokauskas

Missing Links, Philip L. Reno

Managing Chronic Pain: A Review of the CDC Guidelines, Essie Samuel

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: An Overview, Essie Samuel and Jiehyun Lee

Xanthohumol Stimulates the Secretion of Catecholamines and Induces M2 Polarization in Raw 264.7 Macrophages, J. Samuels, S. Alavarez, H. Dinh, Rangaiah Shashidharamurthy, and Srujana Rayalam

The Anti-Obesity Effects of Xanthohumol Are Partly Mediated by the Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway, J. Samuels, Z. Fitch, H.-G. Chae, and Srujana Rayalam

Evolution of the Hominoid Scapula and Its Implications for Earliest Hominid Locomotion, Michael S. Selby and C Owen Lovejoy

Hominoid Scapular Morphology Suggests a Generalized Last Common Ancestor, Michael S. Selby and C. Owen Lovejoy

Treatment of Pregnant Patients With Orthopaedic Trauma, Nirmal Tejwani, Kevin Klifto, Christopher Looze, and Christopher Scott Klifto

Chemotherapy Agents That Cause Cardiotoxicity, Sonia Amin Thomas

Isolation of Intact, Whole Mouse Mammary Glands for Analysis of Extracellular Matrix Expression and Gland Morphology., Christopher Thompson, Katherine Keck, and Abigail Hielscher


Loss of Caveolin-1 Alters Extracellular Matrix Protein Expression and Ductal Architecture in Murine Mammary Glands., Christopher Thompson, Sahar Rahim, Jeremiah Arnold, and Abigail Hielscher


Influences on Patient Satisfaction in Healthcare Centers: A Semi-Quantitative Study Over 5 Years, Ruth D. Thornton, Nicole Nurse, Laura Snavely, Stacey Hackett-Zahler, Kenice Frank, and Robert A. DiTomasso

The Late Jurassic Ray Kimmerobatis etchesi gen. et sp. nov. and the Jurassic Radiation of the Batoidea, Charlie J. Underwood and Kerin M. Claeson

Burden of Illness in Cystic Fibrosis: A Retrospective Analysis of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Data, P Vadagam, K M. Kamal, Kumar Mukherjee, J R. Covvey, and V Giannetti

Preceptor's Grading Scale Preference for Student Pharmacy Practice Experience and Assessment of the Common Grading Scale among Us Schools of Pharmacy, Leanne Honecutt Varner, Remya Radhakrishnan, and Brent L. Rollins


Fibronectin: How Its Aberrant Expression in Tumors May Improve Therapeutic Targeting, Jennifer Peyling Wang and Abigail Hielscher


Resveratrol Enhances Polyubiquitination-Mediated ARV-7 Degradation in Prostate Cancer Cells, Sara Wilson Reece, Lucia Cavero, Dali Tong, Qiuli Liu, Kyla Geary, Nicholas Talamonti, Jing Xu, Junjiang Fu, Jun Jiang, and Dianzheng Zhang

An Overview of the Management of Concussion, Todd J. Woodard and Shari N. Allen


Mechanically Tuned 3 Dimensional Hydrogels Support Human Mammary Fibroblast Growth and Viability, Kathryn Woods, Catlyn Thigpen, Jennifer Peyling Wang, Hana Park, and Abigail Hielscher

ISG15 Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth and Promotes Apoptosis, Mei-Juan Zhou, Fang-Zhi Chen, Han-Chun Chen, Xin-Xing Wan, Xi Zhou, Qian Fang, and Dianzheng Zhang


TGFβƒ1 Promotes Gemcitabine Resistance Through Regulating the LncRNA-LET/NF90/miR-145 Signaling Axis in Bladder Cancer, Junlong Zhuang, Lan Shen, Lin Yang, Xiaojing Huang, Qun Lu, Yangyan Cui, Xi Zheng, Xiaozhi Zhao, Dianzheng Zhang, Ruimin Huang, Hongqian Guo, and Jun Yan

Submissions from 2016

Chlamydia Pneumoniae-Infected Astrocytes Alter Their Expression of ADAM10, BACE1, and Presenilin-1 Proteases, Zein Al-Atrache, Ahmad Cader, and Denah Appelt


Phytochemicals as Novel Agents for the Induction of Browning in White Adipose Tissue, Yusra Azhar, Ashish Parmar, Colette N Miller, Janaiya S Samuels, and Srujana Rayalam

Multifaceted Effects of Guggulsterone as Anti-obesity Agent, Yusra Azhar, Ashish Parmar, and Srujana Rayalam

Osteopathic Approach to Treating a Patient with New Onset Low Back Pain Following Injury Reveals Unusual Presentation of Bilateral and Symmetric Symptoms: A Case Report, Murray R. Berkowitz

Impact of Animated Spokes-Characters in Print Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising: An Elaboration Likelihood Model Approach., Nilesh S Bhutada, Brent L. Rollins, and Matthew Perri

Zinc-Binding Protein-89 (ZBP-89) Cooperates with NF-kB to Regulate Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) in Response to Inflammatory Cytokines, Ruth C. Borghaei, Grzegorz Gorski, Sara Seutter, Janny Chun, Nelly Khaselov, and Stephanie Scianni

Neuroprotective effect of Myo/Nog cells in the stressed retina, Arturo Bravo Nuevo, A. A. Brandli, Jacquelyn Gerhart, J. Nichols, M. Pitts, C. Sutera, S. Assali, V. Scheinfeld, Mindy George-Weinstein, and et al.


Apocynin Exerts Dose-Dependent Cardioprotective Effects by Attenuating Reactive Oxygen Species in Ischemia/Reperfusion, Qian Chen, Woodworth C. Parker, Issachar Devine, Regina Ondraskik, Tsion Habtamu, Kyle Bartol, Brendan Casey, Harsh Patel, William Chau, and Tarah Kuhn

The Sabertooth Salmon, Oncorhynchus rastrosus, gets a facelift., Kerin M. Claeson, E. B. Davis, B. L. Sidlauskas, and Z. M. Prescott

Distal triceps rupture associated with septic olecranon bursitis, Mark Denzine and Jack E. Kazanjian

Reciprocal Androgen Receptor/Interleukin-6 Crosstalk Drives Oesophageal Carcinoma Progression and Contributes to Patient Prognosis, Hongmei Dong, Jinjin Xu, Weiwei Li, Jinfeng Gan, Wan Lin, Jierong Ke, Jiali Jiang, Liang Du, Yuping Chen, Xueyun Zhong, Dianzheng Zhang, Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, Xiaotao Li, and Hao Zhang


Pelvic and Breast Examination Skills Curricula in United States Medical Schools: A Survey of Obstetrics and Gynecology Clerkship Directors, Lorraine Dugoff, Archana Pradhan, Petra Casey, John L Dalrymple, Jodi F Abbott, Samantha D Buery-Joyner, Alice Chuang, Amie J Cullimore, David A Forstein, Brittany S Hampton, Joseph M. Kaczmarczyk, Nadine T Katz, Francis S Nuthalapaty, Sarah M Page-Ramsey, Abigail Wolf, and Nancy A Hueppchen


A Systematic Review on the Use of Psychosocial Interventions in Conjunction with Medications for the Treatment of Opioid Addiction, K Dugosh, A. Abraham, B. Seymour, K. McLoyd, M. Chalk, and David Festinger

Recurrent Varicella in an Immunocompetent Woman, Joseph Dyer and Melinda Greenfield

Verbal communication impacts quality of life in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Stephanie Felgoise, Vincenzo Zaccheo, Jason Duff, and Zachary Simmons

Use of the Internet to Obtain Drugs Without a Prescription Among Treatment-Involved Adolescents and Young Adults, David Festinger, K. Dugosh, N. Clements, A. Flynn, M. Falco, A. McLellan, and A. Arria

Examining the efficacy of a computer facilitated HIV prevention tool in drug court, David Festinger, K. Dugosh, A. Kurth, and D. Metzger


Synchrotron-based Nickel Mössbauer Spectroscopy., Leland B Gee, Chun-Yi Lin, Francis E. Jenney, Michael W W Adams, Yoshitaka Yoda, Ryo Masuda, Makina Saito, Yasuhiro Kobayashi, Kenji Tamasaku, Michael Lerche, Makoto Seto, Charles G Riordan, Ann Ploskonka, Philip P Power, Stephen P Cramer, and Lars Lauterbach


Fibronectin Deposition Participates in Extracellular Matrix Assembly and Vascular Morphogenesis, Abigail Hielscher, Kim Ellis, Connie Qiu, Josh Porterfield, and Sharon Gerecht

Fluorinated Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: a Novel Anti-osteogenic molecule to Attenuate Excessive Bone Damage during Autoimmune Arthritis, Lauren Holland, Ramanjaneya V.R. Mula, Deepa Machiah, Xinyu Wang, and Rangaiah Shashidharamurthy


Microbes and Alzheimer's Disease, Ruth Itzhaki, Richard Lathe, Brian J. Balin, Melvyn J. Ball, Elaine L. Bearer, Heiko Braak, Maria J. Bullido, Chris Carter, Mario Clerici, and et al.


Effects of Anchor Structure and Glycosylation of Fcγ Receptor III on Ligand Binding Affinity, Ning Jiang, Wei Chen, Prithiviraj Jothikumar, Jaina M. Patel, Rangaiah Shashidharamurthy, Periasamy Selvaraj, and Cheng Zhu

Determination of Regional Flow Utilizing Microspheres in ex vivo Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion (MI/R) Injury, Tarah Kuhn, Sabrina Clark, Daniel Kuo, Stephanie Liu, Qian Chen, Robert Barsotti, and Lindon Young


Science AMA Series: Antarctic Peninsula Paleontology Project, Matt Lamanna, Julia Clarke, Pat O'Connor, Ross MacPhee, Erik Gorscak, Abby West, Chris Torres, Kerin M. Claeson, Meng Jin, Steve Salisbury, Eric Roberts, and Zubair Jinnah

Characterization of the [3Fe-4S](0/1+) cluster from the D14C variant of Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin via combined NRVS and DFT analyses., Lars Lauterbach, Leland B Gee, Vladimir Pelmenschikov, Francis Jenney, Saeed Kamali, Yoshitaka Yoda, Michael W W Adams, and Stephen P Cramer

Early-life seizures alter synaptic calcium-permeable AMPA receptor function and plasticity, Jocelyn Lippman-Bell

Exploring the role of synaptic layering, Jocelyn Lippman-Bell

Staging and Management of Heart Failure, Dusty Lisi and Valerie Tapia


Metformin represses bladder cancer progression by inhibiting stem cell repopulation via COX2/PGE2/STAT3 axis, Q. Liu, W. Yuan, D. Tong, G. Liu, W. Lan, Diangzheng Zhang, H. Xiao, Y. Zhang, J. Yang, and J. Zhang


Cerebellar nuclei neurons show only small excitatory responses to optogenetic olivary stimulation in transgenic mice: in vivo and in vitro studies, Huo Lu, Bo Yang, and Dieter Jaeger

New Horizons: Basal Insulin, Miriam Lulusa, Stephen Lee, Sara Reece, and Jennifer Elliott

Developmental Identity Versus Typology: Lucy Has Only Four Sacral Segments, Allison L Machnicki, C Owen Lovejoy, and Philip L. Reno