Preemptive analgesia: a research review.
Current clinical research studying the administration of local anesthetics, opioids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents prior to various types of surgery are reviewed. These agents can reduce pain and improve patient management in the postoperative period, but this technique can be controversial. Implications for nurses are discussed.
Medsurg nursing : official journal of the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses
Goldstein, Frederick J., "Preemptive analgesia: a research review." (1995). PCOM Scholarly Papers. 1349.