Central versus peripheral mediation of naloxone's perfusion effects in endotoxic rats
Opioid receptor antagonists can act centrally and peripherally. It is unclear if these 2 pathways differentially mediate the perfusion-associated effects of opioid antagonism during endotoxemia. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats (340-390 g) were surgically prepared with left ventricular, tail artery, and jugular vein catheters 24 h before experiments were begun. Conscious, unrestrained rats were challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2 mg/kg/hr over 30 min) infusion. Measurements of regional blood flows were made using radioactive microspheres prior to (baseline), and at 60 and 120 min after LPS infusion. Saline (1 mL/kg bolus + 0.5 mL/kg/h infusion), naloxone (NIx; 4 mg/kg bolus + 2 mg/kg/h infusion), or naloxone methyl bromide (NIx-mb; 4.64 mg/kg, bolus + 2.32 mg/kg/h infusion) were administered 40 min after LPS infusion was begun. NIx-mb does not cross the blood-brain barrier, and was thus used to differentiate central from peripherally mediated responses. At the end of each experiment, blood samples were collected for determination of ET-1 and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx = NO3 + NO2) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Griess reaction methods, respectively. Endotoxemia produced a significant decrease in cardiac output and an increase in systemic vascular resistance. Treatment with NIx or NIx-mb significantly attenuated the endotoxin-induced elevation in systemic vascular resistance and the decrease in cardiac output at 60 min after induction of endotoxemia compared with their respective baseline values. NIx and NIx-mb also attenuated the endotoxin-induced increases in hepatic portal and skeletal vascular resistances. These observations suggested that the ameliorative effect of NIx on endotoxemia-induced regional vascular resistance alterations was mediated via peripheral opioid receptor mechanisms. However, although NIx attenuated the endotoxin-induced decreases in the blood flow to the stomach and pancreas, NIx-mb attenuated the endotoxin-induced decreases in the blood flow to the small intestine and cecum, in addition to the pancreas and, to some extent, the stomach. As such, separate central and peripherally mediated actions of opioid receptor antagonism were indicated. NIx also resulted in an increase in the plasma levels of ET-1 only, whereas NIx-mb increased the plasma levels of ET-1 and NOx. These observations suggest that separate central and peripheral effects of opioids during endotoxemia play a role in the associated circulatory alterations, and may differentially affect the release and/or synthesis of vasoactive mediators that might be related to their varied hepatosplanchnic vascular response during endotoxemia.
Sharma, Avadhesh C.; Sam II, A. D.; Alden, K. J.; Moore, S. L.; Law, W. R.; and Ferguson, J. L., "Central versus peripheral mediation of naloxone's perfusion effects in endotoxic rats" (2000). PCOM Scholarly Papers. 963.