Gallbladder disease: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment
Gallbladder disease, particularly cholelithiasis (gallstones), affects more than 20 million Americans each year. Patients often go undiagnosed because cholelithiasis often does not present with symptoms. Symptoms range from nausea or abdominal discomfort to biliary colic and jaundice. Gallbladder diseases are diagnosed most accurately via imaging techniques. However, laboratory values such as CBC, liver-function testing, and serum amylase and lipase should be included to help distinguish the type of gallbladder disease and/or identify associated complications. The most effective treatment for patients with gallbladder disease is surgery. Gallbladder disease is influenced by diet, exercise, and nutrition, and patients should be encouraged to incorporate these healthy habits into their lifestyle in order to reduce their risk of gallbladder disorders.
Afamefuna, S. and Allen, Shari N., "Gallbladder disease: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment" (2013). PCOM Scholarly Papers. 345.