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Objective: Tramadol and 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) use over an extended period is linked to deficits in memory encoding and retrieval. We aimed to determine the neurotoxic effects of co-administration of MDMA and tramadol (TRAM) on hippocampal function and investigate the potential of FMRFamide in attenuating resulting alterations in the Wistar rat model. Methods: Thirty adult male Wistar rats were grouped into six (n=5): Control, FMRFamide, TRAM, MDMA, TRAM+MDMA, and TRAM + MDMA + FMRFamide groups. The opiates were administered orally at 20mg/kg each, while 2mg/kg of FMRFamide was administered intraperitoneally for 12 days using normal saline as a vehicle. The Barnes and Morris water mazes were used to evaluate spatial learning and memory functions, followed by H&E staining, and immunohistochemical staining for glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP). Results: The opiates significantly increased total latencies in the Barnes Maze test, indicating that short-and long-term memory functions were impaired. Also, high levels of escape latency were observed following MDMA administration, suggesting that MDMA reduced the spatial navigation ability of the animals. These discrepancies were noticeably extreme in animals that received co-administration of opiates. However, FMRFamide showed significant potential in attenuating the damage induced by opiates, thus repairing and restoring memory formation and retention functions. Conclusion: FMRFamide may attenuate the Tramadol-and MDMA-mediated memory dysfunction by enhancing cholinergic and glutaminergic synthesis and transporting and restoring exploratory and navigational abilities in the hippocampus of male Wistar rats. © BUMJ.

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Babcock University Medical Journal





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This article was published in Babcock University Medical Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, pages 220-228.

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Copyright © 2023 BUMJ. CC BY-NC 4.0.