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In critical care patients, the “”temporary inactivity of the diaphragm caused by mechanical ventilation (MV) triggers a series of events leading to diaphragmatic dysfunction and atrophy, commonly known as ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD). While mitochondrial dysfunction related to oxidative stress is recognized as a crucial factor in VIDD, the exact molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we observe that 6 h of MV triggers aberrant mitochondrial dynamics, resulting in a reduction in mitochondrial size and interaction, associated with increased expression of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1). This effect can be prevented by P110, a molecule that inhibits the recruitment of DRP1 to the mitochondrial membrane. Furthermore, isolated mitochondria from the diaphragms of ventilated patients exhibited increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These mitochondrial changes were associated with the rapid oxidation of type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) and a decrease in the stabilizing subunit calstabin 1. Subsequently, we observed that the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the ventilated diaphragms showed increased calcium leakage and reduced contractile function. Importantly, the mitochondrial fission inhibitor P110 effectively prevented all of these alterations. Taken together, the results of our study illustrate that MV leads, in the diaphragm, to both mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction, linked to the up-/down-regulation of 320 proteins, as assessed through global comprehensive quantitative proteomics analysis, primarily associated with mitochondrial function. These outcomes underscore the significance of developing compounds aimed at modulating the balance between mitochondrial fission and fusion as potential interventions to mitigate VIDD in human patients.

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PNAS Nexus





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This article was published in PNAS Nexus, Volume 2, Issue 11.

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Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). CC BY 4.0.