Inpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions in the Adult Oncology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Population: A Review of the Literature.
Objective: To review the use of antibiotic stewardship interventions in the adult oncology and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) populations. Data Sources: A literature search of PubMed was performed from inception to October 31, 2019. The general search terms used were oncology, cancer, hematologic malignancy, antimicrobial stewardship, antibiotic stewardship, febrile neutropenia, neutropenic fever, de-escalation, discontinuation, prophylaxis, practice guidelines, clinical pathway, rapid diagnostics, Filmarray, Verigene, MALDI-TOF, antibiotic allergy, and antimicrobial resistance. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Relevant English-language studies describing interventions supported by the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines on "Implementing an Antibiotic Stewardship Program" were included. Data Synthesis: Antibiotic stewardship publications in the oncology population have increased in recent years. Studies have described the impact of stewardship interventions, including preauthorization, prospective audit and feedback, implementation of clinical pathways, de-escalation of empirical antibiotics for febrile neutropenia (FN) prior to neutrophil recovery, allergy assessments, and use of rapid diagnostic testing. Many of these interventions have been shown to decrease antibiotic use without increased negative consequences, such as affecting length of stay or mortality. Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: This review synthesizes available evidence for implementing antibiotic stewardship interventions, particularly de-escalation of antibiotics for FN and implementation of clinical pathways for FN and sepsis, in oncology patients and HCT recipients. Summary tables highlight studies and specific research needs for clinicians. Conclusions: Immunocompromised populations, including oncology patients, have often been excluded from stewardship studies. Antibiotic stewardship is effective in reducing antibiotic consumption and improving outcomes in this patient population, although more quality data are needed.
Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Pillinger, Kelly E; Bouchard, Jeannette; Withers, Sarah T; Mediwala, Krutika; McGee, Edo-abasi U.; Gibson, Geneen M; Bland, Christopher M; and Bookstaver, P Brandon, "Inpatient Antibiotic Stewardship Interventions in the Adult Oncology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Population: A Review of the Literature." (2019). PCOM Scholarly Papers. 2029.