In Vivo Microscopy in Neurosurgical Oncology

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Intraoperative neurosurgical histopathologic diagnoses rely on evaluation of rapid tissue preparations such as frozen sections and smears with conventional light microscopy. Though useful, these techniques are time consuming and therefore unable to provide real-time intraoperative feedback. In vivo molecular imaging techniques are emerging as novel methods for generating real-time diagnostic histopathologic images of tumors and their surrounding tissues. These imaging techniques rely on contrast generated by exogenous fluorescent dyes, autofluorescence of endogenous molecules, fluorescence decay of excited molecules, or light scattering. Large molecular imaging instruments are being miniaturized for clinical in vivo use. This review discusses pertinent imaging systems that have been developed for neurosurgical use and imaging techniques currently under NADPH development for neurosurgical molecular imaging.

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World Neurosurgery

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This article was published in World Neurosurgery

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