Malignancy is one of the most common causes of hypercalcemia, particularly in cancer associated with bone metastases. Hypercalcemia occurs in up to 20% to 30% of cancer patients at some time during the course of their disease. Clinical manifestations of hypercalcemia vary in calcium level in blood. Signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia occur when the serum calcium level rises above those ranges. Fluids are first-line treatment with hypercalcemia followed by bisphosphanates if the calcium is high and the patient is experiencing symptoms. Various other medications are used as second-line agents in hypercalcemia of malignancy.
Integrative cancer science and therapeutics
Thomas, Sonia and Chung, Soo-Hwan, "Management of hypercalcemia of malignancy" (2016). PCOM Scholarly Papers. 1676.