Staging and Management of Heart Failure

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Heart failure (HF) is a progressive clinical syndrome that involves functional and structural alterations of the heart and can result in impaired ventricular filling or ejection of blood. The heart is unable to maintain cardiac output in order to adequately perfuse the body. There is no single diagnostic test for HF; diagnosis is largely based on medical history, physical examination, and symptom presentation. Medication regimens are selected based on the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Foundation staging and the New York Heart Association classification of HF. Lifestyle modifications in conjunction with medication adherence are essential to managing HF and delaying disease progression.

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U.S. Pharmacist




This article was published in U.S. Pharmacist .

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