Date of Submission


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)



Department Chair

Arthur Freeman, Ed.D., ABPP

First Advisor

Arthur Freeman, Ed.D., ABPP

Second Advisor

Michael Ascher, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Donna Martin, Psy.D.


This study describes the development, reliability, and validity of a new observer-rated version of the Beck Depression Inventory – Second Edition (BDI-II). This measure, called the Beck Depression Inventory – II – Observer (BDI-II-O), is identical in form, content, and scoring to the BDI-II, and allows informants to report on the depressive symptoms of others. The informants for this initial study were clinicians; however, the BDI-II-O is designed for use by a wider range of informants. A group of four clinicians completed the BDI-II-O on each of 36 adult psychiatric patients in an intensive outpatient/partial hospitalization program. The patients completed the BDI-II, and scores were compared between the patient and clinician groups, as well as between clinicians. The BDI-II-O demonstrated high internal consistency (r = .96) and test-retest reliability (r = .88). Results from an exploratory cluster analyses indicated that a two-cluster solution optimally summarized the data for the BDI-II-O, although a one cluster solution was salient for the BDI-II. Results showed a moderate level of correlation between patient and clinician ratings (r = .59) a high level of interrater reliability between the four clinicians (ICC = .88). Overall results supported the preliminary reliability and validity of the BDI-II-O as an observer rated measure of depressive severity, and suggested that further study of the BDI-II-O is warranted.