Date of Submission


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)



Department Chair

Stephanie H. Felgoise, PhD, ABPP

First Advisor

David S. Festinger, PhD

Second Advisor

Michelle R. Lent, PhD

Third Advisor

Mary Ellen McMonigle, PhD


Law enforcement officers (LEOs) are integral public service providers who have been called upon by government personnel across state and local government bodies to aid in combating the opioid epidemic. As LEOs are often the primary front-line workers who encounter opioid overdose scenarios, more states across the nation are training LEOs to administer naloxone. The emergence of Coronavirus (COVID-19) has complicated LEOs’ involvement with naloxone administration because of shifts in policing strategies and occupational safety procedures. Given the current pandemic, concerns about contraction and transmission of COVID-19 must be considered for LEOs working in the frontlines of these concurrent public health crises. Evaluation of LEOs’ attitudes and knowledge on administering naloxone is a developing area of research, as literature involving COVID-19 is limited. This present study included active LEOs from the Philadelphia Police Department (N = 229) who completed an online survey. A single linear regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between LEOs’ degrees of belief in the disease model, degree of knowledge on opioid overdose and naloxone administration, degree of concern of contracting COVID-19, likelihood of administering naloxone; these items were based on a vignette of an opioid overdose encounter. LEOs’ degree of knowledge and concern of contracting COVID-19 were both significantly and positively associated with likelihood of naloxone administration. Findings from this study can be used to refine current training curricula within the Philadelphia Police Department and to guide the development of naloxone training programs across police departments.