Date of Submission


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)



Department Chair

Robert A DiTomasso, PhD, ABPP, Chair, Department of Psychology

First Advisor

Bruce S Zahn, EdD, ABPP, Chairperson

Second Advisor

Petra Kottsieper, PhD

Third Advisor

David C Hill, PhD


The concept of Recovery can be understood as an attitude or perspective about people, an attitude that encompasses beliefs about the respect, power, responsibility, empowerment, and hope that people deserve. Knowledge of and attitudes towards Recovery principles are instrumental to the development of Recovery-oriented approaches to mental health care. However, until the present study, information had not been gathered regarding the knowledge and attitudes that clinical psychology doctoral students and pre-doctoral interns have towards Recovery principles and the provision of Recovery-oriented services. A survey of a national sample of 189 doctoral students in APA-accredited programs, and 185 pre-doctoral interns in APA-accredited and APPIC-member internships was conducted, utilizing the Recovery Knowledge Inventory (RKI) to assess their knowledge of and attitudes towards Recovery principles and the provision of Recovery-oriented services. This survey also examined the self-perceived expectations of pre-doctoral interns to provide Recovery-oriented services utilizing the Recovery Self- Assessment: Provider Version (RSA-P). Mean RKI scores both for students and for interns evidenced a need for further education and training. Students and interns identified factors such as a lack of knowledge, of awareness and of training in Recovery as barriers to providing Recovery-oriented services. Additionally, mean intern RSA-P scores demonstrated a lack of consistent Recovery-orientation amongst internship training environments. Implications for doctoral-level clinical psychology training are discussed.