Date of Submission


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)



Department Chair

Arthur Freeman, Ed.D., ABPP

First Advisor

Arthur Freeman, Ed.D., ABPP, Chairperson

Second Advisor

Christopher Royer, Psy.D.

Third Advisor

Richard J. Erdlen, Jr., Ph.D.


This study reviewed the development of the Impediments to Change Scale: Educational Version and evaluated its use with children and adolescents identified as having an Emotional Disturbance (ED) according to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The investigator examined the scale's internal consistency and conducted a hierarchical cluster analysis to identify indices related to “impediments of change.” The objective for the Impediments to Change Scale: Educational Version is to offer a clinically useful instrument to assist in identifying risk factors that impede a student's progress in his or her educational program. Pending future research, this tool has the potential to furnish needed information to create targeted and efficient intervention practices aimed at facilitating behavioral and academic change.