Date of Submission


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)



Department Chair

Robert A. DiTomasso, Ph.D., ABPP

First Advisor

Frederick Rotgers, Psy.D., ABPP, Chairperson

Second Advisor

Robert A. DiTomasso, Ph.D., ABPP

Third Advisor

David Simourd, Ph.D.


The purpose of this study was to examine the LNI (Life Needs Inventory), used by the VOADV (Volunteers of America Delaware Valley) organization to identify risk factors, as well as protective strengths, associated with the securing of stable housing among the homeless population. Homelessness is a growing concern in the United States (Rosenberg, Solarz, & Bailey, 1991) and individuals or families who become homeless are at risk for many more problems. Finding suitable shelter is just the beginning, as physical safety and mental health issues become major concerns. Violence, drugs, risky sexual behaviors, lack of social support, limited employment opportunities, financial instability, and mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, antisocial personality, post traumatic stress, as well as substance use, only add to the problems of homelessness. All of these issues, and more, must be considered when planning psychotherapeutic treatment for clients living in temporary shelters or transitional housing facilities. It is essential for the VOADV to have a valid and reliable instrument with which to assess the risk factors associated with homelessness, as well as to measure the impact of protective factors on homeless individuals, because these factors relate to the securing of stable housing. This study attempts to begin the validation process of the LNI.