James M. Eaton, DO (1928), joined the Department of Surgery in 1930. He later became chairman in 1952. Eaton helped to formalize the one-year surgical residency begun in 1942 into an AOA-approved, three-year program. But Eaton had a particular interest in orthopedics, which had begun to develop as a recognized specialty in the allopathic world by the early 1940s. While practicing as a general surgeon, Eaton performed surgery directed at spinal disease and herniated disks, becoming one of the first surgeons in Philadelphia to perform a laminectomy. Eaton was the recipient of the O.J. Snyder Memorial Medal in 1961.