Date of Award


Degree Type

Selective Evidence-Based Medicine Review

Degree Name

Master of Science in Health Sciences - Physician Assistant


Physician Assistant Studies

Department Chair

John Cavenagh, MBA, PhD, PA-C


Objective: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine “Is Vitamin D supplementation effective at reducing idiopathic musculoskeletal (MSS) pain?”

Study Design: Review of primary studies published between the years 2012-2014.

Data Sources: One double blind randomized controlled trial (RCT), one semi-crossover RCT, and one before and after observational study. These were found using Cochrane Review and PubMed databases.

Outcomes Measured: Clinical outcomes were measured in these studies utilizing the Visual Analogue Scale for Pain, the 5-point Likert Pain Scale, the Standard Nordic Questionnaires and numerical grading of pain level, and number of pain sites before and after Vitamin D3 supplementation.

Results: In a RCT by Knutsen et. al (2014), pain scores were improved in the experimental group receiving supplementation with Vitamin D3 as compared to placebo, but results were not significant. The double-blind, semi-crossover RCT by Schreuder et. al (2012) found significant improvement in nonspecific MSS pain after 6 weeks of Vitamin D3 supplementation and mixed results after 12 weeks of supplementation. The before and after observational study performed by Le Goaziou et. al (2014) also found significantly decreased pain sensation in participants after Vitamin D3 supplementation as compared to baseline.

Conclusions: There is conflicting data in regard to the relationship between Vitamin D stores and MSS pain. To determine whether or not Vitamin D3 supplementation significantly improves idiopathic MSS pain, there needs to be more double-blind randomized controlled trials performed for analysis.