BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) following total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is used as an indicator of renal function. The purpose of this study was (1) to assess each of the five equations that are used in calculating eGFR, and (2) to evaluate which equation may best predict AKI in patients following TJA.
METHODS: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) was queried for all 497,261 cases of TJA performed from 2012 to 2019 with complete data. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) II, re-expressed MDRD II, Cockcroft-Gault, Mayo quadratic, and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations were used to calculate preoperative eGFR. Two cohorts were created based on the development of postoperative AKI and were compared based on demographic and preoperative factors. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess for independent associations between preoperative eGFR and postoperative renal failure for each equation. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to evaluate predictive ability of the five equations.
RESULTS: Seven hundred seventy-seven (0.16%) patients experienced AKI after TJA. The Cockcroft-Gault equation yielded the highest mean eGFR (98.6 ± 32.7), while the Re-expressed MDRD II equation yielded the lowest mean eGFR (75.1 ± 28.8). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that a decrease in preoperative eGFR was independently associated with an increased risk of developing postoperative AKI in all five equations. The AIC was the lowest in the Mayo equation.
CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative decrease in eGFR was independently associated with increased risk of postoperative AKI in all five equations. The Mayo equation was most predictive of the development of postoperative AKI following TJA. The mayo equation best identified patients with the highest risk of postoperative AKI, which may help providers make decisions on perioperative management in these patients.
Mekkawy, Kevin L; Chaudhry, Yash P; Rao, Sandesh S; Raad, Micheal; Amin, Raj M; and Khanuja, Harpal S, "Comparing five equations to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate to predict acute kidney injury following total joint arthroplasty." (2023). Orthopedic Surgery Resident Research. 76.