Bone Graft Options in Spinal Fusion: A Review of Current Options and the Use of Mesenchymal Cellular Bone Matrices.
BACKGROUND: Spinal fusion is the mainstay treatment for various spinal conditions ranging from lumbar and cervical stenosis to degenerative spondylolisthesis as well as extensive deformity corrections. A new emerging category of allograft is cellular bone matrices (CBMs), which take allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells and incorporate them into an osteoconductive and osteoinductive matrix. This study reviewed the current spinal fusion options and new emerging treatment options.
METHODS: Articles were searched using PubMed. The search included English publications since January 1, 2014, using the search terms "cellular bone matrix," "mesenchymal stem cells spinal fusion," "spinal arthrodesis AND mesenchymal stem cells," and "spine fusion AND cellular bone matrix."
RESULTS: Spinal fusion is accomplished through the use of allografts, autografts, and bone graft substitutes in combination or alone. An emerging category of allograft is CBMs, in which an osteoconductive and osteoinductive matrix is filled with mesenchymal stem cells. Studies demonstrate that CBMs have achieved equivalent or better fusion rates compared with traditional options for anterior cervical discectomy and fusions and posterolateral lumbar fusions; however, the studies have been retrospective and lacking control groups and therefore not ideal.
CONCLUSIONS: Many treatment options have been successfully used in spinal fusion. Newer allografts such as CBMs have shown promising results in both animal and clinical studies. Further research is needed to determine the therapeutic dose of mesenchymal stem cells delivered within CBMs.
Viola, Anthony III; Appiah, Jude; Donnally, Chester J; Kim, Yong H; and Shenoy, Kartik, "Bone Graft Options in Spinal Fusion: A Review of Current Options and the Use of Mesenchymal Cellular Bone Matrices." (2021). Orthopedic Surgery Resident Research. 54.