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BACKGROUND: Maximum surgical blood order schedules were designed to eliminate unnecessary preoperative crossmatching prior to surgery in order to conserve blood bank resources. Most protocols recommend type and cross of 2 red blood cell (RBC) units for patients undergoing surgery for treatment of hip fracture. Preoperative hemoglobin has been identified as the strongest predictor of inpatient transfusion, but current maximum surgical blood order schedules do not consider preoperative hemoglobin values to determine the number of RBC units to prepare prior to surgery.

AIM: To determine the preoperative hemoglobin level resulting in the optimal 2:1 crossmatch-to-transfusion (C:T) ratio in hip fracture surgery patients.

METHODS: In 2015 a patient blood management (PBM) program was implemented at our institution mandating a single unit-per-occurrence transfusion policy and a restrictive transfusion threshold of < 7 g/dL hemoglobin in asymptomatic patients and < 8 g/dL in those with refractory symptomatic anemia or history of coronary artery disease. We identified all hip fracture patients between 2013 and 2017 and compared the preoperative hemoglobin which would predict a 2:1 C:T ratio in the pre PBM and post PBM cohorts. Prediction profiling and sensitivity analysis were performed with statistical significance set at P < 0.05.

RESULTS: Four hundred and ninety-eight patients who underwent hip fracture surgery between 2013 and 2017 were identified, 291 in the post PBM cohort. Transfusion requirements in the post PBM cohort were lower (51% vs 33%, P < 0.0001) than in the pre PBM cohort. The mean RBC units transfused per patient was 1.15 in the pre PBM cohort, compared to 0.66 in the post PBM cohort (P < 0.001). The 2:1 C:T ratio (inpatient transfusion probability of 50%) was predicted by a preoperative hemoglobin of 12.3 g/dL [area under the curve (AUC) 0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-0.83), Sensitivity 0.66] in the pre PBM cohort and 10.7 g/dL [AUC 0.78 (95%CI, 0.73-0.83), Sensitivity 0.88] in the post PBM cohort. A 50% probability of requiring > 1 RBC unit was predicted by 11.2g/dL [AUC 0.80 (95%CI, 0.74-0.85), Sensitivity 0.87] in the pre PBM cohort and 8.7g/dL [AUC 0.78 (95%CI, 0.73-0.83), Sensitivity 0.84] in the post-PBM cohort.

CONCLUSION: The hip fracture maximum surgical blood order schedule should consider preoperative hemoglobin in determining the number of units to type and cross prior to surgery.


This article was published in World Journal of Orthopedics, Volume 12, Issue 5, pages 292-300.

The published version is available at

Copyright © 2021 The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. CC BY-NC 4.0.

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World Journal of Orthopedics

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