Surgical Outcome of Low-Power-Density Blue Laser for Vascular Lesions of the Vocal Fold.
Photoangiolytic lasers such as the 532-nm potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) and the novel 445-nm blue laser (introduced into the United States in 2020) are absorbed selectively by hemoglobin, permitting targeted ablation of vascular structures such as vascular malformations of the vocal fold (VF). Previously, we reported the high rate of success of KTP laser photocoagulation for VF vascular lesions. Compared with other photoangiolytic lasers, blue laser has the highest absorption in hemoglobin, and therefore it can be operated at lower power densities to minimize thermal injury to adjacent tissue.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of blue laser for treatment of VF vascular lesions using low power densities, and to compare outcomes of blue laser with those of KTP laser.
METHODS: Adult voice patients who underwent blue laser treatment of VF vascular lesions in the operating room at the lowest power densities that appeared clinically to cause the effect desired were included in this retrospective study. Baseline lesion characteristics and postoperative outcomes were assessed with a model that we had described previously. Postoperative outcomes were compared to those of previously reported KTP laser.
RESULTS: Thirty-one subjects (54 VFs treated) underwent blue laser vaporization of VF vascular lesions (average age was 40.63 ± 17.51). Data were compared to those of 66 subjects (100 VFs) who had undergone KTP laser vaporization of VF vascular lesions. There were no significant differences in subject demographics, past medical or surgical history, or preoperative location or severity of vascular lesions. Surgical success for blue laser at the low power densities used was 3.74 ± 0.50, 3.55 ± 0.94, 3.90 ± 0.94, and 3.70 ± 1.11 (out of 5) at postoperative visits 1-4, respectively. Surgical objective score was significantly greater following KTP laser at every postoperative visit. Treatment with KTP laser resulted in significantly greater generalized postoperative edema, and blue laser resulted in significantly greater localized edema at postoperative visits one and two. At visit three and four, there are no significant differences. VF stiffness following blue laser was 2.41 ± 0.67, 1.91 ± 0.69, 1.33 ± 0.47, and 1.10 ± 0.18 (out of 4) at postoperative visits 1-4, respectively. Postoperative VF stiffness did not differ significantly from KTP laser. Postoperative hemorrhage severity after blue laser was 1.79 ± 0.54, 1.59 ± 0.48, 1.15 ± 0.25, and 1.14 ± 0.26 (out of 4) at postoperative visits 1-4, respectively. Blue laser resulted in significantly less VF hemorrhage than KTP laser at the first (1.79 ± 0.54 versus 2.26 ± 0.83) and second (1.59 ± 0.48 versus 1.98 ± 0.72) postoperative visits. Vascular lesions treated with low-power-density blue laser were significantly more likely to recur than those treated with KTP laser (40.74% versus 10.00%). New vascular malformations were significantly more likely to form after blue laser than KTP (24.07% versus 6.00%). Subjects treated with low-power-density blue laser were significantly more likely to undergo repeat surgery than those treated with KTP (31.48% versus 14.00%). Significant predictors for the need for repeat blue laser included lesion recurrence, a lower surgical objective score at the third or fourth postoperative visit and a higher baseline lesion severity grade.
CONCLUSION: Blue laser is an effective tool for the surgical management of VF vascular lesions. Although overall surgical success ratings were inferior to KTP laser at the power densities used, the severity of postoperative edema and VF hemorrhage were significantly less with blue laser. Re-evaluation of blue laser using higher power densities is in progress.
Journal of Voice
Balouch, Bailey; Ranjbar, Parastou Azadeh; Alnouri, Ghiath; Omari, Ahmad Issa Al; Martha, Vishnu; Brennan, Matthew; and Sataloff, Robert T, "Surgical Outcome of Low-Power-Density Blue Laser for Vascular Lesions of the Vocal Fold." (2022). Otolaryngology (ENT) Resident Research. 92.