Surgical Outcome of Potassium-Titanyl-Phosphate (KTP) Laser Photocoagulation for Vocal Fold Vascular Lesions
INTRODUCTION: Laser technology is used in microscopic direct laryngeal surgery for a variety of indications. Lasers are categorized broadly as photoangiolytic or cutting/ablating lasers, based on the chromophores that absorb their energy. Photoangiolytic lasers such as the 532 nm Potassium-Titanyl-Phosphate (KTP) laser are absorbed selectively by the chromophore hemoglobin, facilitating controlled intravascular coagulation, with preservation of the overlying epithelium and adjacent tissue. Efficacy of the KTP laser has been demonstrated for incision, coagulation, and ablation in vocal fold (VF) surgery.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to examine surgical outcomes following KTP laser photocoagulation for the management of VF vascular lesions.
METHODS: Adult patients with sufficient data who had undergone KTP laser photocoagulation in the operating room for the treatment of VF vascular lesions were included in this retrospective study. Strobovideolaryngoscopy (SVL) video footage from all preoperative visits and all available postoperative visits was compiled and de-identified. Patients were followed up at days 1-7, 8-14, 30-60, and greater than 60 days after surgery. Three blinded physician evaluators reviewed and evaluated the SVL footage independently for postoperative outcome parameters. Postoperative SVL video footage was evaluated on a 5-point scale for surgical success (surgical objective score; 1 = failure and 5 = complete success). The average surgical objective score was 4.36, 4.04, 4.25, and 4.46 (out of 5) at postoperative visits 1-4, respectively.
RESULTS: There were 60 cases (19 male and 41 female) included in the retrospective cohort. The average age was 42.42 ± 15.51 (range = 18-74). Fifty-one-point six seven percent of subjects were professional voice users (singers, teachers, public speakers, and others). All subjects were diagnosed preoperatively with VF vascular malformations and had undergone pulsed KTP laser photocoagulation. There were 40 bilateral cases and 20 unilateral cases, for a total of 100 VFs included in the study. Vascular malformation recurrence was identified in 3.00% and 10.00% of subjects at the third and fourth postoperative visits, retrospectively. The formation of new vascular malformations was identified in 0.00%, 1.00%, 6.00%, and 7.00% of subjects at postoperative visits 1-4, respectively.
CONCLUSION: KTP laser photocoagulation is highly effective for the management of vocal fold vascular lesions. Presence of hemorrhage or edema does not affect the long-term surgical outcome. In relatively few cases, vascular lesion recurrence or formation of new vascular lesions may occur.
Journal of Voice
Balouch, Bailey; Yeakel, Heather; Alnouri, Ghiath; Brennan, Matthew; Martha, Vishnu; and Sataloff, Robert T, "Surgical Outcome of Potassium-Titanyl-Phosphate (KTP) Laser Photocoagulation for Vocal Fold Vascular Lesions" (2021). Otolaryngology (ENT) Resident Research. 79.