Adult Maxillofacial Trauma Patterns in American Football.

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INTRODUCTION: The authors aimed to identify and categorize adult maxillofacial trauma patterns in the setting of American football.

METHODS: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was accessed to identify adult patients presenting with football-related head and facial injuries from 2009 to 2018. Data surrounding each event were collected including age, injury type, injury location, and disposition of the patient. Chi-squared testing was performed to compare categorical variables, with a Bonferroni correction applied.

RESULTS: During the study period, 1784 total patients (national estimate = 65,052) were identified. The average age for this cohort was 27.26 (SD ± 8.49), with young adults (86.1%) and males (87.9%) sustaining the majority of injuries. Lacerations were the most common injury type (43.1%). Maxillofacial fractures comprised 15.8% of the sample, with nasal bone (52.8%) being the most common subtype. Female patients were significantly more likely to present with head injuries than men (46.8% versus 29.0%, P < 0.001). Young and middle-aged adults combined were more likely to be discharged from the emergency department, whereas the elderly were significantly less likely (P = 0.002). Patients with fractures were significantly more likely to be admitted to the hospital compared to all other types of injuries (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: An understanding of maxillofacial injuries while participating in American football is important in developing safety initiatives. To address these, it is crucial that providers understand the patterns of craniofacial injuries as they relate to American football trauma.


This article was published in Journal of Craniofacial Surgery.

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Copyright © 2021 Mutaz B. Habal, MD.

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The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery

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