Advanced Techniques for the Use of Neurotoxins in Non-Surgical Facial Rejuvenation.
BACKGROUND: Neurotoxins initially were used to treat hyperfunctional rhytids of the face, but now have been expanded to improve facial shaping, correct facial asymmetry and even improve skin texture and tone.
METHODS: The clinical approach to non-surgical facial rejuvenation is approached into four anatomical regions: the upper face, midface, lower face and neck.
RESULTS: The key muscles of the upper face include frontalis, orbicularis oculi, corrugator supercilii, procerus, depressor supercilii and temporalis. The muscles in the midface to be discussed include the levator labii superioris, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, depressor anguli oris, depressor septi nasi and nasalis. Treatment of the lower face focuses on the orbicularis oris, mentalis, depressor anguli oris and masseter muscles. Finally, treatment of the neck region will be reviewed with emphasis on platysmal bands and necklace lines as well as the Nefertiti lift.
CONCLUSIONS: Non-surgical facial rejuvenation using neurotoxins should be performed safely and effectively in order to avoid and treat complications.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.
Aesthetic plastic surgery
Cohn, Jason E and Greco, Timothy M, "Advanced Techniques for the Use of Neurotoxins in Non-Surgical Facial Rejuvenation." (2020). Otolaryngology (ENT) Resident Research. 56.