Substance Use and Maxillofacial Trauma: A Comprehensive Patient Profile

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Maxillofacial trauma confers an increased risk of long-term clinical sequelae with a substantial economic burden on the health care system. Substance use has long been correlated with an increased risk of trauma, yet to date, a comprehensive profile of substance users incurring facial fractures has not been established. We aimed to establish patterns and trends of substance use and specific substances in the setting of maxillofacial trauma.


A retrospective chart review was conducted at our institution examining patients with maxillofacial fractures from 2016 to 2017. Information on age, gender, race, urine drug screen status, setting of presentation, mechanism of injury, trauma history, and injury severity was collected and examined for associations with particular substances.


We included 388 patients for analysis. Patients with positive urine drug screen results were significantly more likely to be men, present in an urban setting, incur poly-facial trauma, and have a history of facial trauma. In addition, alcohol use correlated significantly with injury severity in the context of polytrauma. Living in an urban setting and using phencyclidine were both significantly associated with a history of maxillofacial trauma.


Patients with comorbid maxillofacial trauma and substance use exhibit particular patterns in presentation and history. Establishing a profile for these patients allows for the development of prevention and rehabilitation programs.


This article was published in Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

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Copyright © 2019 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

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Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

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