Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Biomedical Sciences


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020), traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered a major public health problem in the United States. Each year, 2.53 million Americans, including 812,000 children, document a TBI-related emergency room visit (CDC, 2020). TBI is a disruption in the brain’s normal function, caused by a bump or blow to the head or by penetrating head injury (CDC, 2020). These injuries range in severity and can cause damage to one or multiple areas of the brain (Oleksii et al., 2019). Mild TBI, often used synonymously with concussion, comprises more than 90% of TBI cases (Pitkänen et al., 2020). Additionally, secondary TBI processes can result in several long-term neurological disabilities (Webster et al., 2017). Post-Traumatic Epilepsy (PTE) is defined as a recurrent seizure disorder secondary to trauma to the brain and has been described as one of the most devastating complications associated with TBI, as it can lead to neurodegenerative and neurocognitive symptoms (Keith & Huang, 2019). Most cases of PTE are resistant to existing anti-epileptic drugs, making treatment extremely difficult (Webster et al., 2017).

The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between TBI and the development of PTE. A review of relevant literature from peer-reviewed publications, was focused on TBI, development of PTE, and potential diagnostic biomarkers for these conditions. It was found that elements of the neuroinflammatory response, including reactive astrogliosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines, may offer valuable insight into the development of PTE. Further research is needed to establish causal relationships, identify targets for therapeutic intervention, and ultimately prevent, manage, and treat PTE.

Included in

Neurosurgery Commons