Anti-obesity effects of xanthohumol plus guggulsterone in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
Xanthohumol (XN) and guggulsterone (GS) have each been shown to inhibit adipogenesis and induce apoptosis in adipocytes. In the present study effects of the combination of XN + GS on 3T3-L1 adipocyte apoptosis and adipogenesis were investigated. Mature adipocytes were treated with XN and GS individually and in combination. XN and GS individually decreased cell viability, but XN + GS caused an enhanced decrease in viability and potentiated induction of apoptosis. Likewise, XN + GS caused a potentiated increase in caspase-3/7 activation, whereas neither of the compounds showed any effect individually. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that XN + GS increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression, whereas individual compounds did not show any significant effect. XN and GS both decreased lipid accumulation. Individually, XN at 1.5 Î¼M and GS at 3.12 Î¼M decreased lipid accumulation by 26 Â± 4.5% (P < .001) each, whereas XN1.5 + GS3.12 decreased lipid accumulation by 78.2 Â± 1.8% (P < .001). Moreover, expression of the adipocyte-specific proteins was down-regulated with XN1.5 + GS3.12, but no effect was observed with the individual compounds. Finally, XN + GS caused an enhanced stimulation of lipolysis. Thus, combination of XN and GS is more potent in exerting anti-obesity effects than additive effects of the individual compounds. Â© 2009 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.
Journal of Medicinal Food
Rayalam, Srujana; Yang, Jeongyeh; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Park, Heajin; Ambati, Suresh; and Baile, Clifton A., "Anti-obesity effects of xanthohumol plus guggulsterone in 3T3-L1 adipocytes" (2009). PCOM Scholarly Papers. 650.