Anti-obesity effects of xanthohumol plus guggulsterone in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

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Xanthohumol (XN) and guggulsterone (GS) have each been shown to inhibit adipogenesis and induce apoptosis in adipocytes. In the present study effects of the combination of XN + GS on 3T3-L1 adipocyte apoptosis and adipogenesis were investigated. Mature adipocytes were treated with XN and GS individually and in combination. XN and GS individually decreased cell viability, but XN + GS caused an enhanced decrease in viability and potentiated induction of apoptosis. Likewise, XN + GS caused a potentiated increase in caspase-3/7 activation, whereas neither of the compounds showed any effect individually. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that XN + GS increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression, whereas individual compounds did not show any significant effect. XN and GS both decreased lipid accumulation. Individually, XN at 1.5 μM and GS at 3.12 μM decreased lipid accumulation by 26 ± 4.5% (P < .001) each, whereas XN1.5 + GS3.12 decreased lipid accumulation by 78.2 ± 1.8% (P < .001). Moreover, expression of the adipocyte-specific proteins was down-regulated with XN1.5 + GS3.12, but no effect was observed with the individual compounds. Finally, XN + GS caused an enhanced stimulation of lipolysis. Thus, combination of XN and GS is more potent in exerting anti-obesity effects than additive effects of the individual compounds. © 2009 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.

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Journal of Medicinal Food





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This article was published in Journal of Medicinal Food, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 846-853.

The published version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2008.0158.

Copyright © 2009 Liebert, Inc.

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