Associations between sleep health and obesity and weight change in adults: The Daily24 Multisite Cohort Study.

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OBJECTIVES: To examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of individual sleep domains and multidimensional sleep health with current overweight or obesity and 5-year weight change in adults.

METHODS: We estimated sleep regularity, quality, timing, onset latency, sleep interruptions, duration, and napping using validated questionnaires. We calculated multidimensional sleep health using a composite score (total number of "good" sleep health indicators) and sleep phenotypes derived from latent class analysis. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between sleep and overweight or obesity. Multinomial regression was used to examine associations between sleep and weight change (gain, loss, or maintenance) over a median of 1.66 years.

RESULTS: The sample included 1016 participants with a median age of 52 (IQR = 37-65), who primarily identified as female (78%), White (79%), and college-educated (74%). We identified 3 phenotypes: good, moderate, and poor sleep. More regularity of sleep, sleep quality, and shorter sleep onset latency were associated with 37%, 38%, and 45% lower odds of overweight or obesity, respectively. The addition of each good sleep health dimension was associated with 16% lower adjusted odds of having overweight or obesity. The adjusted odds of overweight or obesity were similar between sleep phenotypes. Sleep, individual or multidimensional sleep health, was not associated with weight change.

CONCLUSIONS: Multidimensional sleep health showed cross-sectional, but not longitudinal, associations with overweight or obesity. Future research should advance our understanding of how to assess multidimensional sleep health to understand the relationship between all aspects of sleep health and weight over time.

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Sleep Health

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This article was published in Sleep Health.

The published version is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2023.03.006.

Copyright © 2023 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

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