A comparison of Swedenborg's and Sutherland's descriptions of brain, dural membrane and cranial bone motion
Two hundred years before Sutherland's introduction of the cranial concept, Emanuel Swedenborg described a sophisticated and unique model of brain and body function, which contained some ideas similar to those found in Sutherland's cranial concept. This paper will review a portion of Swedenborg's paradigm of the brain and central nervous system as described in his scientific works, particularly "The Brain". It will focus on Swedenborg's description of inherent motion of the brain, the reciprocal motion of the dura mater, and cranial bone motion. These concepts will be compared and contrasted to the areas of William Garner Sutherland's cranial concept that deal with brain motion, dural motion and cranial bone motion. Historical connections between Sutherland and Swedenborg's ideas will also be explored.
Fuller, David B., "A comparison of Swedenborg's and Sutherland's descriptions of brain, dural membrane and cranial bone motion" (2008). PCOM Scholarly Papers. 1440.