Laser photolysis of caged calcium: Rates of calcium release by nitrophenyl-EGTA and DM-nitrophen
Nitrophenyl-EGTA and DM-nitrophen are Ca2+ cages that release Ca2+ when cleaved upon illumination with near-ultraviolet light. Laser photolysis of nitrophenyl-EGTA produced transient intermediates that decayed biexponentially with rates of 500,000 s-1 and 100,000 s-1 in the presence of saturating Ca2+ and 290,000 s-1 and 68,000 s-1 in the absence of Ca2+ at pH 7.2 and 25Â°C. Laser photolysis of nitrophenyl-EGTA in the presence of Ca2+ and the Ca2+ indicator Ca-orange-5N produced a monotonic increase in the indicator fluorescence, which had a rate of 68,000 s-1 at pH 7.2 and 25Â°C. Irradiation of DM-nitrophen produced similar results with somewhat slower kinetics. The transient intermediates decayed with rates of 80,000 s-1 and 11,000 s-1 in the presence of Ca2+ and 59,000 s-1 and 3,600 s-1 in the absence of Ca2+ at pH 7.2 and 25Â°C. The rate of increase in Ca2+ -indicator fluorescence produced upon photolysis of the DM-nitrophen: Ca2+ complex was 38,000 s-1 at pH 7.2 and 25Â°C. In contrast, pulses in Ca2+ concentration were generated when the chelator concentrations were more than the total Ca2+ concentration. Photoreleased Ca2+ concentration stabilized under these circumstances to a steady state within 1-2 ms.
Ellis-Davies, G. C. R.; Kaplan, J. H.; and Barsotti, Robert J., "Laser photolysis of caged calcium: Rates of calcium release by nitrophenyl-EGTA and DM-nitrophen" (1996). PCOM Scholarly Papers. 1253.