Date of Submission


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)



Department Chair

Robert A. DiTomasso, Ph.D., ABPP

First Advisor

Bruce S. Zahn, Ed.D., ABPP, Chairperson

Second Advisor

Robert A. DiTomasso, Ph.D., ABPP

Third Advisor

Joseph DiVencenzo, M.D.


The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Zahn-Given Recovery Beliefs Questionnaire (RBQ). The RBQ is a formal measure designed to assess specific underlying beliefs and expectations that relate to treatment non-adherence and recidivism in adult psychiatric patients. A total of 100 subjects were administered the RBQ, the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS); included as well are self and clinician-rated compliance with treatment measures. Factor analysis of the RBQ reveals a factor structure that includes four factors: Embarrassment/ Stigma, Unrealistic Optimism, Hopelessness/ Pessimism and Concerns About Side Effects. A total scale alpha reliability of .82 indicates stability of the instrument. The RBQ demonstrates construct validity as evidenced by positive correlations with the BHS and DAS, which also measure distorted styles of thinking. Furthermore, the Pessimism/ Hopelessness factor of the RBQ correlates positively with the BHS. Recidivists (n = 31) did not significantly differ from non-recidivists (n = 69) on total RBQ score, although non-recidivists endorsed more concerns related to the use of psychiatric medications as measured by the Concerns About Side Effects Factor of the RBQ. Treatment implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.