Date of Submission


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)



Department Chair

Robert A DiTomasso, PhD, ABPP, Chair, Department of Psychology

First Advisor

Virginia Salzer, PhD, Chairperson

Second Advisor

Diane Smallwood, PsyD

Third Advisor

Susan Clements, PsyD


The digital divide was once a term used to indicate disparity between socio-economic classes and access to digital devices. The digital divide may now more accurately indicate differences in the types of usage between members of different socio-economic classes. Differences in usage among the middle school student population may play a role in the development of critical thinking and collaborative communication. The Maryland results of the 2010 Speak Up survey – a national student survey regarding the usage of technology - were used in comparison with student respondent school district differentiation and were also compared with student state standardized test scores. No statistically significant relationships were found between student responses to questions of technology access or usage, dependent on urban or suburban/rural district setting.