Date of Award


Degree Type

Selective Evidence-Based Medicine Review

Degree Name

Master of Science in Health Sciences - Physician Assistant


Physician Assistant Studies


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not the effects of yoga improve pain management in the adolescent population with primary dysmenorrhea.

DESIGN: Review of three randomized control trials (RCTs), all three written in English, and were published in 2011,2013, and 2017.

DATA SOURCES: Three randomized control trials were published in peer-reviewed journals found via PubMed, Medline, and International Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR).

OUTCOMES MEASURED: Pain intensity and Quality of Life (QOL) were measured using the Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VASP), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), and SF-36 Short Item Form. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) measured stress and the Back and Leg Dynamometer was used to measure back and leg strength, and flexibility. Statistics were reported using p-values, t-test, ANOVA, Friedman, Mann-Whitney, and The Kolmogorov- Smirnov tests.

RESULTS: All three studies showed significant improvement in pain reduction using a p value of p<0.05 to show that a statistical improvement was achieved. Rakhshaee et al. presented with a p value of p<0.000, and Nag et al. achieved a p<0.0001 indicating statistical improvement within experimental group. The study conducted by Yonglitthipagon et al. had results represented in adjusted mean values of 95% CIs with a p<0.02 showing it too achieved a result of significant improvements to its experimental group.

CONCLUSIONS: All three studies concluded that yoga is an effective and viable option for patients experiencing the discomforts of dysmenorrhea. All three studies concluded that there was a significant improvement not only in pain reduction, but also an improvement was seen in the quality of life, the stress level, and the fitness of the participants using yoga. Future research should be conducted using a larger number of participants, both genders, various age groups, and possible studies on the benefits of yoga on specific disorders.