Date of Award


Degree Type

Selective Evidence-Based Medicine Review

Degree Name

Master of Science in Health Sciences - Physician Assistant


Physician Assistant Studies


Objective: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not phonophoresis using NSAIDs reduces osteoarthritis knee pain.

Study Design: Systematic review of three double-blind randomized controlled trials published between the years 2013 and 2018.

Data Sources: Published peer-reviewed articles obtained through PubMed and Cochrane Collaboration. Articles were selected based on relevance to my clinical question and if they included patient-oriented outcomes.

Outcomes Measured: Pain severity was self-reported by patients using a visual analog scale (VAS) on a continuum of 0-100; 0 representing no pain at all and 100 representing the worst pain imaginable. Participants in all three studies reported pain scores at baseline and after completing 2 weeks of treatment.

Results: The study conducted by Luksurapan et al. showed a mean change from baseline of 67%, a mean of between group difference of 14.73 +/- 5.78, and a P-value of 0.009.1 The study conducted by Monisha et al. showed a mean change from baseline of 70% and a P-value < 0.00.2 The study conducted by Oktayoglu et al. showed a mean change from baseline of 23 and a Pvalue of < 0.05.3

Conclusion: All three studies in this EBM review demonstrated reduction of mild to moderate osteoarthritis knee pain with the use of phonophoresis using NSAIDs. Additional research may be indicated to further evaluate treatment outcomes with larger and more diverse patient populations, as well as long-term effects of treatment.