Date of Award


Degree Type

Selective Evidence-Based Medicine Review

Degree Name

Master of Science in Health Sciences - Physician Assistant


Physician Assistant Studies


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not raloxifene is effective as an adjunctive schizophrenia medication in reducing schizophrenia symptoms in women with diagnosed schizophrenia.

STUDY DESIGN: A review of three peer-reviewed studies published between 2014 and 2016.

DATA SOURCES: Three randomized control trials. Using PubMed and Cochrane Collaboration, studies were chosen if they were peer-reviewed, related to the topic question, published after 2014, and if they had results containing POEMs.

OUTCOMES MEASURED: Decrease in schizophrenia Symptoms, as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndromes Scale (PANSS).

RESULTS: Two studies found a statistically significant reduction in schizophrenia symptoms with the Raloxifene treatment group compared to the control group with p-values of 0.005 and 0.02 respectively (Usall J, Herta-Ramos E, Labad J, et al. Schizophr Bull. 2015;42(2):309-17. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbv149; Kulkarni J, Gavrilidis E, Gwini, S, et al. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73(9):947-954. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.1383). One study did not find a statistically significant reduction in schizophrenia symptoms with a p-value of 0.18. (Kianimehr G, Fatehi F, Hashempoor S, et al. Daru. 2014;22(1):55. doi:10.1186/2008-2231-22-55).

CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study do not give a definitive answer to the research question. Future studies should consider including a larger study population, limiting participants to post-menopausal women with schizophrenia who are on the same antipsychotic medications, running studies for longer periods of time, and comparing various doses of treatment to each other.