Date of Award


Degree Type

Selective Evidence-Based Medicine Review

Degree Name

Master of Science in Health Sciences - Physician Assistant


Physician Assistant Studies

Department Chair

Laura Levy, DHSc, PA-C


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not intranasal ketorolac is both safe and effective in reducing acute postoperative pain for patients over 18 years of age that require inpatient hospitalization.

STUDY DESIGN: Review of three double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were used, all are from 2008 to present and all are in the English language.

DATA SOURCES: Data sources include articles that were published on both PubMed and Cochrane databases and were selected based on their relevance to the research question as well as patient measured outcomes.

OUTCOMES MEASURED: Outcomes measured include efficacy of the drug measured through Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Pain Intensity Differences (PID) and Summed Pain Intensity Differences at 6 hours (SPID6) as well as safety measured through self-reported adverse events or change in clinical status.

RESULTS: The study by Moodie et al. 6 showed a significant increase of 64.9 (p=0.0015) in SPID6 scores between intranasal ketorolac and placebo. Brown et al. 7 also showed a significant increase of 46.1 (p=0.007) in the SPID6 scores between the groups. Finally, Singla et al. 8 additionally demonstrated a significant increase of 27.6 (p=0.03) in SPID6 scores between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS: All three studies demonstrated that intranasal ketorolac is both safe and effective in reducing pain postoperatively.

Included in

Surgery Commons