Date of Award


Degree Type

Selective Evidence-Based Medicine Review

Degree Name

Master of Science in Health Sciences - Physician Assistant


Physician Assistant Studies

Department Chair

John Cavenagh, MBA, PhD, PA-C


Objective: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not Botox is a safe and effective treatment to reduce symptoms of depression?

Study Design: The review is based on three Randomized Control Trials that were double-blind and placebo controlled clinical trials.

Data Source: All articles were researched and found using PubMed and Medline. The articles were selected based on the relevance to my clinical question and if the articles included patient oriented outcomes (POEMS).

Outcomes Measured: The outcomes were measured by the improvement of depressive symptoms (sleep disturbances, suicide ideations, change in appetite/weight/concentration/energy/guilt/interests) and improvement in scores from the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 and 21), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Patient Health Care Questionnaire-9.

Results: In the study by Finzi et al. (2013), they found statistical evidence (p <0.001) that Botox improved symptoms of Major Depressive Symptoms. The evidence revealed that 52% of patients at 6 weeks showed signs of improvement compared to the placebo group whom showed a 15% improvement of symptoms. A study by Magid et al. (2014) also found statistical evidence (p<0.001) that treatment with Botox did improve symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The study showed that 55% of the patients who received Botox responded to treatment and had decreased symptoms with 0% of the placebo group showing any reduction in symptoms. A study by Wollmer et al. (2012) also supported the previous evidence with statistical findings (p=0.002) that MDD symptoms improved with the use of Botox. Patients had reduced symptoms on average of 47% with the use of Botox compared to the placebo group whom had a decrease in 9.2% of their symptoms.

Conclusion: The results from all three Randomized Control Trials proved that Botox is a safe and effective treatment to reduce symptoms of depression.

Included in

Psychiatry Commons