Date of Award


Degree Type

Selective Evidence-Based Medicine Review

Degree Name

Master of Science in Health Sciences - Physician Assistant


Physician Assistant Studies

Department Chair

John Cavenagh, MBA, PhD, PA-C


Objective: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not Botox is a safe and effective treatment to reduce symptoms of depression?

Study Design: The review is based on three Randomized Control Trials that were double-blind and placebo controlled clinical trials.

Data Source: All articles were researched and found using PubMed and Medline. The articles were selected based on the relevance to my clinical question and if the articles included patient oriented outcomes (POEMS).

Outcomes Measured: The outcomes were measured by the improvement of depressive symptoms (sleep disturbances, suicide ideations, change in appetite/weight/concentration/energy/guilt/interests) and improvement in scores from the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 and 21), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Patient Health Care Questionnaire-9.

Results: In the study by Finzi et al. (2013), they found statistical evidence (p

Conclusion: The results from all three Randomized Control Trials proved that Botox is a safe and effective treatment to reduce symptoms of depression.

Included in

Psychiatry Commons