Date of Award


Degree Type

Selective Evidence-Based Medicine Review

Degree Name

Master of Science in Health Sciences - Physician Assistant


Physician Assistant Studies

Department Chair

John Cavenagh, MBA, PhD, PA-C


Objective: The objective of this selective evidence based medicine review is to determine whether or not mindfulness-based therapy is effective in increasing total sleep time in adults.

Study design: Review of three randomized controlled trials published in 2011, 2014 and 2015, all English language.

Data source-The three randomized controlled trials that were used in this review were found using PubMed.

Outcomes measured: Total sleep time, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, number of awakenings, time in bed, subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleep medications, and daytime dysfunction were the main outcomes measured.

Results: In the Black et al. study there showed an improvement in the mindful awareness practice group by a mean of 2.8 and a mean of 1.1 in the sleep hygiene education group when comparing Pittsburgh Sleep Index Quotient (PSQI) scores which includes total sleep time from baseline to post intervention. The Gross et al. study showed a baseline mean of total sleep time of 6.34 hours in the mindfulness-based stress reduction group was reduced to 6.21 hours and in the pharmacotherapy group a baseline total sleep time of 6.40 hours increased to 6.95 hours at the end of active treatment. The Ong et al. study showed an increase in the total sleep time of 27.68 minutes in the mindfulness-based stress reduction group and the mindfulness-based therapy for insomnia group showed an increase of 2.5 minutes along with the self-monitoring group that had an increase of 6.53 minutes in the total sleep time.

Conclusion: Mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) has not been shown to be as effective in increasing total sleep time as pharmacotherapy in the short term, but was shown to increase total sleep time when compared to sleep hygiene education or self-monitoring. MBT can be used as an adjunctive therapy for those that suffer from insomnia and may be more efficacious when used long term.