Title

Endosomal Proteolysis by Cathepsins is Necessary for Murine Coronavirus Mouse Hepatitis Virus Type 2 Spike-Mediated Entry

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

6-1-2006

Abstract

Most strains of murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) express a cleavable spike glycoprotein that mediates viral entry and pH-independent cell-cell fusion. The MHV type 2 (MHV-2) strain of murine coronavirus differs from other strains in that it expresses an uncleaved spike and cannot induce cell-cell fusion at neutral pH values. We show here that while infection of the prototype MHV-A59 strain is not sensitive to pretreatment with lysosomotropic agents, MHV-2 replication is significantly inhibited by these agents. By use of an A59/MHV-2 chimeric virus, the susceptibility to lysosomotropic agents is mapped to the MHV-2 spike, suggesting a requirement of acidification of endosomes for MHV-2 spike-mediated entry. However, acidification is likely not a direct trigger for MHV-2 spike-mediated membrane fusion, as low-pH treatment is unable to overcome ammonium chloride inhibition, and it also cannot induce cell-cell fusion between MHV-2-infected cells. In contrast, trypsin treatment can both overcome ammonium chloride inhibition and promote cell-cell fusion. Inhibitors of the endosomal cysteine proteases cathepsin B and cathepsin L greatly reduce MHV-2 spike-mediated entry, while they have little effect on A59 entry, suggesting that there is a proteolytic step in MHV-2 entry. Finally, a recombinant virus expressing a cleaved MHV-2 spike has the ability to induce cell-cell fusion at neutral pH values and does not require low pH and endosomal cathepsins during infection. These studies demonstrate that endosomal proteolysis by cathepsins is necessary for MHV-2 spike-mediated entry; this is similar to the entry pathway recently described for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and indicates that coronaviruses may use multiple pathways for entry.

Publication Title

Journal of Virology

Volume

80

Issue

12

First Page

5768

Last Page

5776

PubMed ID

16731916

Comments

This article was published in Journal of Virology, Volume 80, Issue 12, June 2007, Pages 5768-5776.

The published version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00442-06

Copyright © 2006, American Society for Microbiology

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